السبت، 17 أكتوبر، 2009

History of e-Learning

Historical Timeline

470 قبل الميلاد

0 470BC Socrates was using a way of questioning as a way to teach people. This dialectic way of learning is still used within educational settings and also within e-Learning

سقراط كان يستخدم وسيلة السؤال لتعلم

200 قبل الميلاد

Roman classroom 0 200AD This is a very early use of learning aids/tools. A Roman piece from a place near Trier. It shows a school where the teacher is sitting in the middle and two students are sitting around him, reading a parchment role. At the right a student is arriving with his tablet on which he could write. This technique (writing slate) was used within European schools till around 1950.Dr. Marcel Mirande is mentioning in his book 'De onstuitbare opkomst van de leermachine' (The Unstoppable rise of the Learning machine) that the writing slate actually looks like, and maybe is, the equivalent of the modern laptop. He also states that the meaning and importantance of the writing slates was very clear. It has to be used to develop writing skills. Nowadays we are still developing a clear and balanced view on the new learning aids like laptops. click for full event details

الرومان يستخدمون الفصول الدراسية

1840

First selfstudy distance course 0 1840 Modern distance education has been around at least since Sr. Isaac Pitman taught shorthand in Great Britain via correspondence in the 1840s (shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language). Pitman was a qualified teacher and taught at a private school he founded in Wotton-under-Edge. He decided to start a distance course and was sending assignments to his students by mail and they completed the 'homework' and sent it back to him

 

نظرية الاختزال لاسحاق بيتمان

1920

Pre 1920s: Shift from phrenology (stuffing the mind with knowledge as a mental exercise) to an empirical knowledge base for education based on Thorndike's Laws of Learning and the introduction of educational measurement.

ظهرت قوانين ثورندايك في التعلم وإدخال القياس التربوي.

1920s: Matching of society needs to education and connecting outcomes and instruction. Individualized Instruction (II) plans were developed that allowed learners to progress at their own pace with minimum teacher direction. Contract learning and mastery learning emerged, and the roots of job analysis and task analysis.

وضعت الخطط التي سمحت للمتعلمين الفرصة لإحراز التعلم .

1926

First automated testing machine 0 1926 In the early 1920s Sidney Pressey, an educational psychology professor at Ohio State University, developed a machine to provide drill and practice items to students in his introductory courses. Pressey (1926) stated, " the procedure in mastery of drill and informational material were in many instances simple and definite enough to permit handling of much routine teaching by mechanical means." The teaching machine that Pressey developed resembled a typewriter with a window that showed a question with four answers. The user pressed the key that corresponded with the correct answer. When the user pressed a key, the machine recorded the answer on a counter to the back of the machine and revealed the next question. After the user was finished, the person scoring the test slipped the test sheet back into the device and noted the score on the counter. Now we see that this functionality is widely used in online systems like Questionmark Perception. Testing and assessment can be perfectly done in an automated way. The Questionmark Perception assessment management system enables educators and trainers to author, schedule, deliver, and report on surveys, quizzes, tests and exams. It can easy the assessment processes and improve the quality of questions and tests. The machine was technically a good machine but was not a great success due to the economic situation within the United States. Because of the depression teachers were very afraid to lose their job because of this kind machine. click for full event details

اخترع العالم سدني بريسي عالم النفس التربوي في جامعة أهايو آلة تساعد على اختبار الطلاب تشبه الآله الكاتبة وتحتوي مجموعة من الأجوبة يتم الأختيار منها.

1939

 

 

Instructional media and World War II 0 1939 Although movies were popular for a while, within educational situations these media was not very popular yet.With World War II this changed. The war created an enormous instructional problem - thousands of new recruits had to be trained rapidly, and the sophistication of new weapons demanded an unprecedented level of mastery.Rapidly the new media technology became dominant and widely used. The war was the 'business driver'. click for full event details

أنتشار الوسائط التعليمية في زمن الحرب العالمية الثانية

 

1930

 

1930s: Even though the great depression affected education in terms of funding and other respects, the 8 year study plan (Tyler) was a major milestone in specifying general objectives for education and behavioral objectives were being shaped. Also formative evaluation was recognized.

على الرغم من أن الكساد الاقتصادي الكبير على التعليم من حيث التمويل والجوانب الأخرى، ظهرت أهداف تايلر لتحديد الأهداف العامة والأهداف السلوكية.

 

 

1940

 

1940s: With WWII and the military, mediated strategies such as the use of films for instruction and AV technology was dominant and the term for instructional technologist was coined by Finn. The idea of an instructional development team was also initiated.

 

في الحرب العالمية الثانية ظهرت الأفلام التعليمة لتعليم التكنلوجيا

1945

Behaviorism and programmed instruction 0 1945 Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, 1904.In 1945, he became the chairman of the psychology department at Indiana University. In 1948, he was invited to come to Harvard, where he remained for the rest of his life. He was a very active man, doing research and guiding hundreds of doctoral candidates as well as writing many books.B. F. Skinner’s entire system is based on operant conditioning. A behaviour followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behaviour occurring in the future. Everybody know his examples with rats.But Skinner also developed a learning system! And during the 50s the attitude towards teaching machines radically changed. In the United States, there were not enough people to fill all the teaching positions. Also the television was popular within education.Skinner presented the content in small, related chunks of information. Students didn't have multiple choice questions but they had to write down the answers on a role of paper. Skinners Programmed Instruction was very popular.At this very moment, programmed instruction is popular when it comes to (digital) self study courses. click for full event details

في هذا الزمن قام العالم فريدريك سكينر رشيس قسم علم النفس في جامعة انديانا باستخدام الآلة التي تساعد على الأختيار من عدة أجوبة وذلك بسبب قلة المعلمين

 

1950

 

1950s: With the baby boom after WWII, the Trumpet Plan that recognized small group, large group independent study instruction was a milestone and Sputnik which initiated federal funds to education was another milestone. The period also marked the birth of Programmed Instruction (PI) from behaviorism. Bloom's mastery learning theory and task analysis was first used by the Air Force personnel.

 

ظهور نظرية بلوم لتحليل المهام واستخدمت أول مرة من جانب أفراد القوات الجوية

 

1960

Constructivism 0 1960 Jean Piaget (and other like Bruner) defined a model/theory of learning called Constructivism. This model based says that learning is an very active process. Learners construct new ideas, structures, models and concepts and connect them to their prior knowledge and mental models. Actual experiences are important for the learning process. Not only the content is important but also context is essential for meaningful learning. These instructional experiences must be structured so that learners can easily adapt the information. The learner plays an active role and learning is goal-oriented. click for full event details

ظهور نظرية العالم جان بياجية ، نظرية التعليم البنائية، مختصرها أن التعلم عملية نشطة.

 

1960s: Cognitive psychology was dominant in this decade (Gagne, Glaser), and the systems approach to designing instruction was introduced (Finn). A shift from norm-referenced testing to criterion-based testing was noted. The focus was on the development of instructional materials. The first types of teaching machines were developed, while instructional film became more creative and broadened its reach to children in schools. Programmed text and instructional films were some learning technologies used in the 1960s.The advent of large scale television availability brought on a new learning delivery method. The expenses were high and the delivery of the information challenging. The use of videos emerged and were used in corporate training and school classrooms for example educational shows such as Sesame Street and broadcasting university lectures.

 

ظهور علم النفس المعرفي وكان التركيز في هذا العصر على تطوير المواد التعليمية وكان الفيلم التعليمي هو أكثر أداة استخدمت في المدارس وأيضا التلفزيون وكذلك الفيديو ومن أشهر البرامج في هذا العصر للتعليم هو برنامج " افتح يا سمسم" ، وكذلك استخدم لبث المحاضرات.

1969

ARPANET: grandma of the WWW Jan 14 1969 The first ARPANET link was established on January 14, 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at SRI. The ARPANET, developed by the Department of Defense of the United States, was the world's first operational packet switching network, and the predecessor of the global Internet. From the beginning the US university were playing an essential role. click for full event details

ظهر شبكة الأربانت في وزارة الدفاع الأمريكية في الحرب العالمية الثانية في جامعة كاليفورنيا

 

1970

 

1970s: Cognitive approach was still dominant. In the history of e-learning, the work of Ausubel, Bruner, Merrill, Gagne and others on instructional strategies dominated this decade. The birth of AECT and the proliferation of models of instructional design was noted as well as the development of needs assessment procedures by Kauffman and others.

 

في هذا العصر " المنهج المعرفي" لا زال مسيطراً على التعلم الإلكتروني وكذلك انتشرت نماذج التصميم في هذا العصر.

 

1975

Computers as learning aid
0 1975


The introduction of the first personal computer (the Altair 880 in 1975) was quickly followed by the Apple II and the IBM PC. With the Apple and the IBM the computer was reliable enough and was used for didactical purposes. The usability was improving and the computer was not only meant for nerds anymore.

Especially within mathematics and science many projects were started. Simulations and programmed instruction (De Jong, 1991) were used the most.

Computers were used to make the current, existing tasks easier to perform. They were helpful to some teachers and a nice addition to their teaching tools. It could hardly be called Innovation. It was substitution.

A lot of teachers with some technical skills start programming their own courseware (educational programs). Useful 'drill and practice' exercises were created. Not a lot of courseware were shared amongst teachers. Lot of schools and teacher were having the 'Not-invented-here syndrome'.

click for full event details

إدخال أول حاسوب شخصي وبعده ظهر الحاسوب للأغراض التعليمية مثل الرياضيات والعلوم.

 

1980

 

1980s: Performance technology (Gilbert) and the focus on needs assessement (identifying the gaps between actuals and optimals) (Rossett) and whether the discrepancy was due to lack of incentive, lack of knowledge or skills, or lack of environmental support. Microcomputer instruction (CBI/CBT) flourished in this decade with the emphasis on design for interactivity and learner control.

 

الحواسيب الصغيرة ازدهرت في هذا العقد

 

1989

World Wide Web (WWW)
0 1989


The World Wide Web (aka the Web or WWW) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, a user views web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks.

The World Wide Web was created in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland.

The WWW became really popular when the graphical browser Mosaic was released in September 1993. It was dubbed the killer application of the Internet.

ظهور شبكة الأنترنت.

 

1990

 

1990s: Focus on designing learning environments based on a constructivist approach to learning and multimedia development. Hypertext and hypermedia influence the field and cross-cultural issues are bridged using the Internet. In the 1990s, interactive learning via computer-based training (CBT), use of touch screens and interactive videodisks increased with the availability of home computers and more reliance on technology in the workplace. The technology has since been advancing very fast, leading to concerns of digital and knowledge divides, incompatibilities between hardware and software, slow system performance, and memory and disk space issue, In the 1990s and not enough memory space. This was a technological learning curve for both the learning industry who made the products and the learners who used them.

 

تم تطوير الوسائط المتعددة واستخدام شبكة الانترنت ، واستخدام الشاشات التي تعمل باللمس ، مع الاعتماد على المزيد من التكنولجيا في مكان العمل.

 

1995

First accepted virtual learning environment
0 1995


At the end of the 90s the learning management systems (LMS) were used. Some universities started to design and develop their own systems but most of the educational institutions started with systems off the market.

One of the key players within the educational market was the American company Blackboard. Outside the educational world, other LMSs became popular like SABA and Docent. Blackboard was a complete solution for the management of the courses. Students and teachers could:

* exchange learning materials;
* do tests;
* communicate with each other in many ways;
* track and trace the progress;
* many more.

The environment was able to facilitate learning in quite an easy way. The product was quite simple to use by teachers, there was not a steep learning curve. That was one of the mean reasons for the popularity. Criticasters were telling everybody that this was nothing more than an old model of learning (very teacher centred) with a new way of interacting. No educational innovation was involved.

Blackboard actually changed the educational world because this was the first moment that teachers were accepting and using technology within their own classrooms on a large base!

 

ظهور أول بيئة تعلم أفتراضية.

The year 1995 may be considered to be the beginning of e-learning at the University of Tartu when the first e-mail based course was delivered for the students of the Faculty of Mathemathics.

تمت الموافقة على بداية التعليم الإلكتروني في جامعة تارتو

 

1997

Educational digital games
0 1997


Educational games are an important learning tool for ages. In 1933 Charles Darrow invented a board game called Monopoly. It was a big hit and players were engaged and were playing the game for hours and hours.

Since that moment people started to re-use the set of rules and the presentation of the rules but they used new content. This way Monopoly was used in a lot of learning situations. It became a learning tool!

In the '90s we also saw digital educational games. Also called Game based learning or Serious games.

Game based learning is learning by playing games. These games are designed to teach people about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play.

One of the most used edugames is America's Army which is a tactical multiplayer first-person shooter owned by the United States Government and released as a global public relations initiative to help with U.S. Army recruitment.

Since 2002 it is available on the market for free (see details to download the game) and it is quite popular around the world. It is not only a shooter but you will also have to learn something in order to level up. As a player, you even need to join medical classes within the game. You need to collaborate with other players.

The army not only use this game as a recruitment tool but also as a training tool for their own soldiers.

 

ظهور الألعاب الرقمية التعليمية.

 

2000

درس أكثر من (70) مليون شخص في قطاعات التعليم والتدريب بوساطة الإنترنت

أسس مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية «أمانة لجنة مسؤولي التعليم عن بعد بجامعات ومؤسسات التعليم العالي بدول مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية» في عام (2000م) لدعم مبادرات التعلم الإلكتروني عن بعد في دول المجلس.

بدأت وكالة كليات البنات بوزارة التربية والتعليم مشروعًا طموحًا للتعليم عن بعد باستخدام نظام البث الفضائي (VSAT) لتعليم الطالبات عن بعد في أكثر من (100) كلية للبنات في أنحاء المملكة. "غير متأكد من التاريخ"

2000

2000s: In the new millennium, Internet technologies are more and more integrated with personal, academic, and professional lives. Learners, educators, and instructional designers have a variety of tools and resources to chose from in the courses, seminars, and training, for example using e-learning tools, Web 2.0 tools, web conferencing, etc.

في هذا العصر تم استخدام أدوات التعلم الإلكتروني والويب 2 وأيضا عقد المؤتمرات.

2001

قدمت كليات وجامعات وشركات في (130) دولة أكثر من (50.000) مقرر للتعليم عن بعد بأساليب متنوعة من بينها التعلم الإلكتروني

2002

نمو الاستثمارات في التدريب الإلكتروني بـ(6.6) بليون دولار في عام 2002م

 

2003

 تمت بدايات التطوير في penn stat

2004

 

 

Web 2.0
0 2004


Web 2.0 is the name for a new way of interaction on the internet. Tim O'Reilly first coined the term Web 2.0.

People say that the world wide web has changed from a passive environment where visitors are consuming information into a more interactive, participating environment where visitors are creators as well.

Examples of Web2.0 are:
- blogs
- wiki's
- social bookmarking sites
- videosites
- Google docs

All those environments can be used within educational settings as well.
 

ظهور الويب 2 على يد تيم أوريلي وهي تعتبر طريقة جديدة للتفاعل عبر شبكة الانترنت وتحولت من الشكل السلبي الذي هو عبارة عن زيارة المواقع إلى المشاركة التفاعلية في المواقع ومثال على ذلك الدونات.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2006

 تم إنتاج مقررات في penn stat تم تطبيق التعليم الالكتروني في أول مدرسة بالهيئة الملكية بالجبيل الصناعية كيف ؟ التعليم الإلكتروني استخدام التقنية وما تتيحه الثورة المعلوماتية من إمكانيات هائلة في إيصال المعلومة ( المحتوى التعليمي )للمتعلم بطريقة جيدة وفعالة ( أقصر وقت وأقل جهد وأكبر فائدة ) بهدف تعزيز قدرات المتعلمين والمعلمين ورفع مستوى معارفهم وخبراتهم 0 لماذا التعليم الالكتروني لتحقيق الفوائد والأهداف التالية : توفير بيئة تعليمية غنية ومتعددة المصادر . إعادة صياغة الأدوار في الطريقة التي تتم بها عملية التعليم والتعلم بما يتوافق مع مستجدات الفكر التربوي . تشجيع التواصل بين منظومة العملية التعليمية . تقديم خدمة مميزة تناسب خصوصية المجتمع الصناعي وتطوره . إعداد جيل من المعلمين والطلاب قادر على التعامل مع التقنية ومهارات العصر . المساعدة على نشر التقنية في المجتمع 0

المرجع: http://www.rcjschools.gov.sa/

يمكن من خلاله حل الواجبات الإلكترونية والاستعلام عن النتائج والغياب وتسجيل الطلاب.

 المرجع : http://www.rcjschools.edu.sa/

2007

 

100$ laptop (OLPC) 0 2007 OLPC (One Laptop Per Child) was founded by Nicholas Negroponte with a core of Media Lab veterans. It is an educational project with the goal: "To provide children around the world with new opportunities to explore, experiment and express themselves".The laptops are forming a network automatically and has a user interface that graphically embraces the spirit of the network. It is all about community and collaboration—working and playing together to learn, create and communicate. It is packed with open source software and open content.You can now buy one. Actually you have to buy two: one for a child and one for

 

تم تأسيس فكرة حاسوب لكل طفل

2007

 افتتاح الورشة التدريبية الأولى في تصميم التعليم صباح يوم السبت 29/6/1428هـ الساعة العاشرة صباحا وذلك في مبنى مركز الإنتاج والبث التلفزيوني بالجامعة وتعد هذه الورشة أولى الورش التي تنظمها عمادة التعلم الالكتروني والتعليم عن بعد بالجامعة، بالتعاون مع مشروع المركز الوطني للتعلم الإلكتروني والتعليم عن بعد التابع لوزارة التعليم العالي.

 

04/07/2008

 توقيع مذكرة التفاهم بين جامعة الملك سعود ونظيرتها الجامعة الماليزية المفتوحة، ومثل جامعة الملك سعود مدير الجامعة الدكتور عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن العثمان بينما مثل الجامعة الماليزية المفتوحة رئيس الجامعة البروفيسور أنور علي.

 http://www.elc.edu.sa/portal/index.php?mod=news&apage=3&annID=325

03/22/2008

 وقع معالي وزير التعليم العالي الدكتور خالد بن محمد العنقري اتفاقيات تفاهم وتعاون مع ثمان جامعات سعودية لدعم تطبيقات التعلم الإلكتروني والتعليم عن بعد في مقر جامعة الملك سعود،

 03/11/2008

 وزير التعليم العالي يدشن تطبيق التعلم الإلكتروني في سبع جامعات يوقع معالي الدكتور خالد بن محمد العنقري وزير التعليم العالي يوم الخميس الثاني عشر من ربيع الأول الجاري اتفاقيات تفاهم وتعاون لدعم تطبيقات التعلم الإلكتروني والتعليم عن بعد في سبع جامعات، هي: جامعة الباحة، وجامعة طيبة، وجامعة القصيم، وجامعة حائل، وجامعة الطائف، وجامعة أم القرى، والجامعة الإسلامية.

 01/07/2008

وقع معالي الدكتور خالد بن محمد العنقري وزير التعليم العالي ومعالي الدكتور عبدالله بن عبدالرحمن العثمان مدير جامعة الملك سعود اتفاقية تفاهم لتطبيق مبادرة تجسير، التي تتبناها الوزارة من خلال المركز الوطني للتعلم الإلكتروني والتعليم عن بعد.

http://www.elc.edu.sa/portal/index.php?mod=news&apage=3&annID=295 06/24/2008

جامعة صنعاء تدشن برنامج التعليم عن بعد

 06/21/2008

 هدية رائعة إلى مليوني معلم في الوطن العربي

 08/02/2008

تحويل المقررات التعليمية في الجامعات السعودية إلى وحدات إلكترونية

 07/29/2008

 الجامعة الهاشمية تبدأ بالانتقال إلى أساليب التعليم الالكتروني

 07/16/2008

 جامعة الملك عبدالعزيز توظف الهاتف المتنقل في برنامج التعليم عن بعد

 10/16/2008

 

 جامعة الإمام تدشن قناة تلفزيونية تعليمية على الانترنت

 10/15/2008

 المركز الوطني يطلق الحملة التوعوية عن التعلم الإلكتروني

 10/15/2008

 المركز الوطني يطلق نظام التعلم الإلكتروني جسور (1.5)

09/14/2008

 حملة توعية عن التعلم الإلكتروني في الجامعات السعودية

01/18/2009

 المركز الوطني للتعلم الإلكتروني والتعليم عن بعد يوقع مع 14 جامعة محلية

01/10/2009

 إعادة إطلاق أول مكتبة رقمية للاتحاد الأوروبي

01/05/2009

 إطلاق منظومة التعلم الإلكتروني جسور في جامعة أم القرى

 2014

جامعة افتراضية إلكترونية بالمملكة خلال الخمس سنوات القادمة

07/16/2008

 انضمام جامعة المعرفة العالمية إلى الشبكة العربية للتعليم المفتوح و التعليم عن بعد

 04/06/2009

 المركز الوطني للتعلم الإلكتروني يطلق أكثر من ستين برنامجاً تدريبياً

03/23/2009

 مستودع رقمي يتيح للجامعات السعودية تبادل المحاضرات والمقررات الدراسية

06/07/2009

 جامعة الإمام تعتمد 200 مليون للتعلم الإلكتروني

05/26/2009

 وزارة التعليم العالي توقع مذكرة تعاون مع الأمن العام

05/25/2009

 تنظيم أول ندوة إلكترونية عن أصول التدريس في التعليم الإلكتروني

في الامارات

05/04/2009

 جامعة الملك سعود تحصل على جائزة المحتوى العربي الإلكتروني

 04/26/2009

 انطلاق المكتبة الرقمية العالمية من اليونسكو ومكتبة الكونغرس وشركاء آخرين

 http://www.wdl.org/ar

2009

 تم تطبيق التعليم الالكتروني في 30 مدرسة في الجبيل الصناعية

هناك 4 تعليقات:

  1. اشكرك على المصداقيه و وضع الروابط لاكثر التواريخ

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  2. جهد كبير ومشكور
    اخي يعقوب الا تتفق معي ان بعض هذه التواريخ ليس لها علاقة واضحة ومباشرة بالتعليم الالكتروني؟ مثل سقراط وقانون ثورندايك!!

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  3. معك حق أخي الكريم أيمن

    ولكن وجدت في أكثر التعاريف باللغة الإنجليزية ربط بين التعليم الإلكتروني والمعرفة السلوكية، ولا أعلم ما سبب الربط

    ولكن كل التواريخ القديمة تتكلم عن التعليم في الفصول بشكل كامل ثم أنتقلت إلى التعلم الإلكتروني، وأردت أن أبدأ بالتعليم بشكل كامل!

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  4. اشكرك اخي يعقوب علي البداية كما قصدت بالتعليم بشكل عام .
    جهد واضح

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